Teks Misa Tridentine [Misa Latin]

Latin Mass


(You can print this Missal – There are approximately 16 pages)

Ordinary of the Mass
1962 edition of the Tridentine Ordo


Ordinary of the Mass
1962

An English Translation of the
Missale Romanum

P. Priest
D. Deacon
S. Server/Congregation
C. Choir
V. Versicle
R. Response

Parts are denoted as follows
P. Priest
D. Deacon
L. Subdeacon/Lector
S. Server/Congregation
C. Choir
V. Versicle
R. Response

Antiphon
P.
Asperges me
C. Domine, hyssopo, et mundabor: lavabis me, et super nivem dealbabor.
Ps. 50 Miserere mei, Deus, secundum magnam misericordiam tuam.

Antiphon
P.
Thou shalt sprinkle me,
C. Lord, with hyssop and I shall be cleansed; thou shalt wash me, and I shall be made whiter than snow. Have mercy on me, O. God, according to thy great mercy.



V. Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto,
R. Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper, et in saecula saeculorum.
Amen

V. Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit.
R. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

Antiphon Asperges me, Domine, hyssopo, et mundabor: lavabis me, et super nivem dealbabor.

Antiphon Thou shalt sprinkle me, Lord, with hyssop and I shall be cleansed; thou shalt wash me, and I shall be made whiter than snow.

or during Easter time

Antiphon
P.
Vidi aquam

Antiphon
P.
I saw water coming

C. egredientem de templo, a latere dextro, alleluia: et omnes ad quos pervenit aqua ista salvi factci sunt, et dicent: Alleluia, alleluia. Ps. 117 Confitemini Domino, quoniam bonus; quoniam in saeculum misericordia ejus.

C. forth from the Temple from the right side, alleluia: and all those were saved to whom that water came, and they shall say alleluia, alleluia. Give praise to the Lord, for he is good,: for His mercy endureth forever.

V.Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto,
R. Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper, et in saecula saeculorum.
Amen

V. Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit.
R. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end.
Amen.

Antiphon Vidi aquam egredientem de templo, a latere dextro, alleluia: et omnes ad quos pervenit aqua ista salvi factci sunt, et dicent: Alleluia, alleluia

Antiphon I saw water coming forth from the Temple from the right side, alleluia: and all those were saved to whom that water came, and they shall say alleluia, alleluia.

P. Ostende nobis, Domine, misericordiam tuam. (alleluia)
S. Et salutare tuum da nobis (alleluia)
P. Domine, exaudi orationem meam.
S. Et clamor meus ad te veniat.

P. Show us, Lord, Your mercy. (Alleluia)
S. And grant us Your salvation. (Alleluia)
P. O Lord, hear my prayer.
S. And let my cry come unto You.

P. Dominus vobiscum.
S. Et cum spiritu tuo.
P. Exaudi nos, Domine, sanctae Pater, omnipotens aeterne Deus et mittere digneris sanctum Angelum tuum de caelis, qui custdiat, foveat, protegat, vistet, atque defendat omnes habitantes in hoc habitaculo.
Per Christum Dominum nostrum.
S. Amen

P. May the Lord be with you.
S. And with your spirit
P. Let us pray. Hear us Lord, holy Father, almighty and eternal God; and graciously send Your Holy Angel from heaven to watch over, to cherish, to protect, to abide with, and to defend all who dwell in this house. Through Christ our Lord.
S. Amen.

The Mass

Mass of the Catechumens

P. In nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. S. Amen.

P. Introibo ad altare Dei
S Ad Deum qui laetificat juventutem meam.

P. In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, + and of the Holy Spirit.
S. Amen

P. I will go to the altar of God.
S. To God, the joy of my youth.

Psalm 42
(Omit during Passiontide and Requiem Mass)


P. Judica me, Deus, et discerne causam meam de gente non sancta: ab homine iniquo et doloso erue me.


P. Do me justice, O God, and fight my fight against an unholy people, rescue me from the wicked and deceitful man.

S. Quia tu es, Deus, fortitudo mea: quare me repulisti, et quare tristis incedo, dum affligit me inimicus?

S. For Thou, O God, art my strength, why hast Thou forsaken me? And why do I go about in sadness, while the enemy harasses me?

P. Emitte lucem tuam et veritatem tuam: ipsa me deduxerunt et adduxerunt in montem sanctum tuum, et in tabernacula tua.

P. Send forth Thy light and thy truth: for they have led me and brought me to thy holy hill and Thy dwelling place.

S. Et introibo ad altare Dei: ad Deum qui laetificat juventutem meam.
P. Confitebor tibi in cithara, Deus, Deus meus quare tristis es anima mea, et quare conturbas me?

S. And I will go to the altar of god, to God, the joy of my youth.
P. I shall yet praise Thee upon the harp, O God, my God. Why art thou sad, my soul, and why art thou downcast?

S. Spera in Deo, quoniam adhuc confitebor illi: salutare vultus mei, et Deus meus.

S. Trust in God, for I shall yet praise Him, my Savior, and my God.

P. Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto.

P. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit.

S. Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper: et in saecula saeculorum. Amen.

S. As it was in the beginning is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

P. Introibo ad altare Dei.
S. Ad Deum qui laetificat juventutem meam.

P. I will go to the altar of God.
S. To God, the joy of my youth.

P. Adjutorium nostrum in nomine Domini.
S. Qui fecit coelum et terram.

P. Our help + is in the Name of the Lord.
S. Who made heaven and earth.

Confiteor

(Priest’s Confession)

P. Confiteor Deo omnipotenti, beatae Mariae semper Virgini, beato Michaeli Archangelo, beato Joanni Baptistae, sanctis Apostolis Petro et Paulo, omnibus Sanctis, et vobis fratres: quia peccavi nimis cogitatione verbo, et opere: mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa. Ideo precor beatam Mariam semper Virginem, beatum Michaelem Archangelum, beatum Joannem Baptistam, sanctos Apostolos Petrum et Paulum, omnes Sanctos, et vos fratres, orare pro me ad Dominum Deum Nostrum.

P. I confess to Almighty God, to Blessed Mary ever Virgin, to Blessed Michael the Archangel, to Blessed John the Baptist, to the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, to all the angels and saints, and to you my brothers and sisters, that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word, deed.(here he strikes his breast three times) through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault, and I ask Blessed Mary ever Virgin, Blessed Michael the Archangel, Blessed John the Baptist, the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, all the Angels and Saints, and you my brothers and sisters, to pray for me to the Lord our God.

S. Misereatur tui omnipotens Deus, et dimissis peccatis tuis, perducat te ad vitam aeternam.
P. Amen.

S. May almighty God have mercy on you, forgive you all your sins, and bring you to everlasting life.
P. Amen.

(People’s Confession)

S. Confiteor Deo omnipotenti, beatae Mariae semper Virgini, beato Michaeli Archangelo, beato Joanni Baptistae, sanctis Apostolis Petro et Paulo, omnibus Sanctis, et tibi Pater: quia peccavi nimis cogitatione verbo, et opere: mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa. Ideo precor beatam Mariam semper Virginem, beatum Michaelem Archangelum, beatum Joannem Baptistam, sanctos Apostolos Petrum et Paulum, omnes Sanctos, et te Pater, orare pro me ad Dominum Deum Nostrum.

S. I confess to Almighty God, to Blessed Mary ever Virgin, to Blessed Michael the Archangel, to Blessed John the Baptist, to the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, to all the angels and saints, and to you my brothers and sisters, that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word, deed.(here one strikes one’s breast three times) through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault, and I ask Blessed Mary ever Virgin, Blessed Michael the Archangel, Blessed John the Baptist, the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, all the Angels and Saints, and you Father, to pray for me to the Lord our God.

P. Misereatur vestri omnipotens Deus, et dimissis peccatis vestris, perducat vos ad vitam aeternam.
S. Amen.

P. May Almighty God have mercy on you, forgive you your sins, and bring you to everlasting life.
S. Amen

P. Indulgentiam absolutionem, et remissionem peccatorum nostrorum, tribuat nobis omnipotens et misericors Dominus.
S. Amen.

P. May the Almighty and Merciful Lord grant us pardon, + absolution, and remission of our sins.
S. Amen.

P. Deus, tu conversus vivificabis nos..
S.
Et plebs tua laetabitur in te.
P. Ostende nobis Domine, misericordiam tuam.
S. Et salutare tuum da nobis.

P. Turn to us, O God, and bring us life.
S. And Your people will rejoice in You.
P. Show us, Lord, Your mercy.
S. And grant us Your salvation.

P. Domine, exaudi orationem meam.
S. Et clamor meus ad te veniat.
P. Dominus vobiscum.
S. Et cum spiritu tuo.

P. O Lord, hear my prayer.
S. And let my cry come to You.
P. May the Lord be with you.
S. And with your spirit.

P. Oremus.

P. Let us pray.

(The Priest inaudibly says the following while going to the Altar)

P. Aufer a nobis, quaesumus, Domine, iniquitates nostras ut ad Sancta sanctorum puris mereamur mentibus introire. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen.

P. Take away from us, O Lord, we beseech You, that we may enter with pure minds into the Holy of Holies. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

(He kisses the altar at the place where the saint’s relics are enclosed an says:)

P. Oramus te. Domine, per merita Sanctorum tuorum, quorum reliquiae hic sunt, et omnium Sanctorum: ut indulgere digneris omnia peccata mea. Amen.

P. We beseech You, O Lord, by the merits of Your Saints whose relics lie here, and of all the Saints, deign in your mercy to pardon me all my sins. Amen.

(At this point in a sung or high Mass the celebrant now censes the altar. He says:)

P: May this incense be blessed by him in whose honour it is to be burned. Amen.

Introit Antiphon
(said by Priest here, but sung by the Choir after the sign of the Cross)

Kyrie

P. Kyrie eleison.
S. Kyrie eleison.
P. Kyrie eleison.
S. Christe eleison.
P. Christe eleison.
S. Christe eleison.
P. Kyrie eleison.
S. Kyrie eleison.
P. Kyrie eleison.

P. Lord, have mercy.
S. Lord, have mercy.
P. Lord, have mercy.
P. Christ, have mercy.
S. Christ, have mercy
P. Christ, have mercy.
P. Lord, have mercy.
S. Lord, have mercy.
P. Lord, have mercy

Gloria
Sung or said on all Sundays (except during penitential seasons) and on many
other days, but never at Mass for the Dead.

P. Gloria in exceslis Deo.

P. Glory to God in the highest.

(The priest concludes the Gloria below and sits while the choir sings it)

C. Et in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis. Laudamus te. Benedicimus te. Adoramus te. Glorificamus te. Gratias agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam. Domine Deus, Rex coelestis, Deus Pater omnipotens. Domine Fili unigenite, Jesu Christe. Domine Deus, Agnus Dei, Filius Patris, Qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis. Qui tollis peccata mundi, suscipe deprecationem nostram. Qui sedes ad dexteram Patris, miserere nobis. Quoniam tu solus Sanctus. Tu solus Dominus. To solus Altissimus, Jesu Christe. Cum Sancto Spiritu in gloria Dei Patris.. Amen.

C. And on earth peace to people of good will. We praise You. We bless You. We worship You. We glorify You. Lord God, heavenly King, God the Father almighty. Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten Son. Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father. You who take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us.. You who take away the sins of the world, receive our prayer. You who sit at the right hand of the Father, have mercy on us. For You alone are holy. You alone are Lord. You alone are the Most High, Jesus Christ, with the Holy Spirit, in the Glory of God the Father. Amen.

The Prayer
(Here the Priest prays the collect for the day.)

P. Dominus Vobiscum.
S. Et cum spiritu tuo.
P. Oremus.

P. May the Lord be with you.
S. And with your Spirit.
P. Let us pray.

(after having read the one or more Prayers of the day:)

P. Per omnia saecula saeculorum.
S. Amen.

P. For ever and ever
S. Amen.

The Epistle
(sit)

P/L: Lectio…

P/L: A reading from the….


(The epistle for the day is read at this point, at the end of the reading, the server responds:)

S. Deo gratias.

S. Thanks be to God.

Graduale
Here the Gradual is sung by the schola, while the preparation for the Gospel occurs. The Alleluia, and Sequence Paschale victimae in the Easter Vigil, Veni, sancte Spiritus on Pentecost, Lauda Sion on Corpus Christi, Stabat Mater on Our Lady of Sorrows, Dies Irae on All Souls and in requiem and Funeral Masses. In Lent and at Masses for the dead the Alleluia is omitted and a tract sung instead.

Munda cor Meum

D. Munda cor meum ac labia mea, omnipotens Deus, qui labia Isaiae Prophetae calculo mundasti ignito: ita me tua grata miseratione dignare mundare, ut sanctum Evangelium tuum digne valeam nuntiare. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen.

Jube, Domine benedicere.

D. Cleanse my heart and my lips, O Almighty God, Who cleansed the lips of the Prophet Isaiah with a burning coal. In Your gracious mercy deign so to purify me that I may worthily proclaim Your holy Gospel. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

Lord, grant me your blessing.

P. Dominus sit in corde meo et in labiis meis. ut digne et competenter annuntiem evangelium suum.
D. Amen.

P. The Lord be in your heart and on your lips that you may worthily and fittingly proclaim His holy Gospel. In the name of the Father, and of the Son, + and of the Holy Spirit.
D. Amen

The Gospel
(stand)

P/D. Dominus vobiscum.
S. Et cum spiritu tuo.

P/D. May the Lord be with you.
S. And with your spirit.

P/D. Sequentia (or Initium) sancti Evangelii secundum N.

P/D. + A continuation of the holy Gospel according to St. (name).

(The Gospel book is incensed)

S. Gloria tibi, Domine.

S. Glory to you, O Lord.

(The Gospel is read)

(at the end of the reading the deacon and/or the servers says:)

S. Laus tibi, Christe.

S. Praise to you, O Christ.

(Afterwards at high Mass, the deacon takes the book to the celebrant who kisses it, saying:)

P. Per evangelica dicta deleantur nostra delicta.

P. May the words of the gospel wipe away our sins.

Homily or Sermon

(sit)

Nicene Creed
(as with the Gloria, the Priest recites the Creed and then sits while the choir sings it)

Credo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem, factorem coeli et terrae, visibilium omnium et invisibilium. Et in unum Dominum Jesum Christum, Filium Dei unigenitum. Et ex Patre natum ante omnia saecula. Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero. Genitum, not factum, consubstantialem Patri: per quem omnia facta sunt. Qui propter nos homines, et propter nostram salutem descendit de coelis. Et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine: ET HOMO FACTUS EST. Crucifixus etiam pro nobis; sub Pontio Pilato passus, et sepultus est. Et resurrexit tertia die, secundum Scripturas. Et ascendit in coelum: sedet ad dexteram Patris. Et iterum venturus est cum gloria judicare vivos et mortuos. cujus regni non erit finis. Et in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et vivificantem: qui ex Patre Filioque procedit. Qui cum Patre, et Filio simul adoratur et conglorificatur: qui locutus est per Prophetas. Et unam, sanctam, catholicam et apostolicam Ecclesiam. Confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum. Et exspecto resurrectionem mortuorum. Et vitam venturi saeculi. Amen.

I believe in one God, The Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God. Born of the Father before all ages. God of God, Light of Light, true God of true God. Begotten, not made, of one substance with the Father. By whom all things were made. Who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven. (here all present kneel) And became incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the Virgin Mary: AND WAS MADE MAN. (here all arise) He was also crucified for us, suffered under Pontius Pilate, and was buried. And on the third day He rose again according to the Scriptures. He ascended into heaven and sits at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead and His kingdom will have no end. And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of life, Who proceeds from the Father and the Son. Who together with the Father and the Son is adored and glorified, and who spoke through the prophets. And one holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. I confess one baptism for the forgiveness of sins and I await the resurrection of the dead and the life + of the world to come. Amen.

P. Dominus vobiscum.
S. Et cum spiritu tuo.
P. Oremus.

P. May the Lord be with you.
S. And with your spirit.
P. Let us pray.

(In the early Church, at this point the learners, or catechumens were dismissed.)

Mass of the Faithful

Offertory Verse
(The offertory Antiphon is sung while the Priest begins the Offertory)

(sit)

Offertory Prayers
(said in a low voice while choir sings Offertory verse)

P. Suscipe, sancte Pater, omnipotens aeterne Deus, hanc immaculatam hostiam, quam ego indignus famulus tuus offero tibi, Deo meo vivo et vero, pro innumerabilibus peccatis, et offensionibus, et negligentiis meis, et pro omnibus circumstantibus, sed et pro omnibus fidelibus Christianis vivis atque defunctis. ut mihi, et illis proficiat ad salutem in vitam aeternam.
S.Amen.

P. Accept, O Holy Father, Almighty and eternal God, this spotless host, which I, your unworthy servant, offer to You, my living and true God, to atone for my numberless sins, offenses and negligences; on behalf of all here present and likewise for all faithful Christians living and dead, that it may profit me and them as a means of salvation to life everlasting.
S. Amen.

P. Deus, qui humanae substantiae dignitatem mirabiliter condidisti, et mirabilius reformasti: da nobis per hujus aquae et vini mysterium, ejus divinitatis esse consortes, qui humanitatis nostrae fieri dignatus est particeps, Jesus Christus Filius tuus Dominus noster: Qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus Sancti Deus. per omnia saecula saeculorum. Amen.

P. O God, + who established the nature of man in wondrous dignity, and still more admirably restored it, grant that by the mystery of this water and wine, may we come to share in His Divinity, who humbled himself to share in our humanity, Jesus Christ, Your Son, our Lord. who lives and reigns with You in the unity of the holy Spirit, one God, forever and ever. Amen.

P. Offerimus tibi, Domine, calicem salutaris tuam deprecantes clementiam: ut in conspectu divinae majestatis tuae, pro nostra et totius mundi salute cum odore suavitatis ascendat. Amen.

P. We offer You, O Lord, the chalice of salvation, humbly begging of Your mercy that it may arise before Your divine Majesty, with a pleasing fragrance, for our salvation and for that of the whole world. Amen.

P. In spiritu humilitatis, et in animo contrito suscipiamur a te, Domine, et sic fiat sacrificium nostrum in conspectu tuo hodie, ut placeat tibi, Domine Deus.

P. In a humble spirit and with a contrite heart, may we be accepted by You, O Lord, and may our sacrifice so be offered in Your sight this day as to please You, O Lord God.

P. Veni, Sanctificator omnipotens aeterne Deus. et benedic hoc sacrificum tuo sancto nomini praeparatum.

P. Come, O Sanctifier, Almighty and Eternal God, and bless, + this sacrifice prepared for the glory of Your holy Name.

(When Mass is sung, the celebrant now blesses incense, saying)

P. Per intercessionem beati Michaelis Archangeli, stantis a dextris altaris incensi, et omnium electorum suorum, incensum istud dignetur Dominus benedicere, et in odorem suavitatis accipere. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen.

P. Through the intercession of Blessed Michael the Archangel, standing at the right hand of the altar of incense, and of all His elect may the Lord vouchsafe to bless + this incense and to receive it in the odor of sweetness. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

(He censes the offerings, the cross and the altar, saying:)

P. Incensum istud a te benedictum, ascendat ad te, Domine, et descendat super nos misericordia tua.

P. May this incense blessed by You, arise before You, O Lord, and may Your mercy come down upon us

(while incensing the altar)

P. Dirigatur, Domine, oratio mea sicut incensum in conspectu tuo: elevatio manuum mearum sacrificium vespertinum. Pone, Domine, custodiam ori meo, et ostium circumstantiae labiis meis : ut non declinet cor meum in verba malitiae, ad excusandas excusationes in peccatis.

P. Let my prayer, O Lord, come like incense before You; the lifting up of my hands, like the evening sacrifice. O Lord, set a watch before my mouth, a guard at the door of my lips. Let not my heart incline to the evil of engaging in deeds of wickedness..

(while handing the thurible back)

P. Accendat in nobis Dominus ignem sui amoris, et flammam aeterne caritatis. Amen.

P. May the Lord enkindle in us the fire of His love and the flame of everlasting charity. Amen

(Now the celebrant, the ministers, the servers, and the people are censed in order)

(The celebrant washes his fingers, saying these verses of Psalm 25:)

P. Lavabo inter innocentes manus meas. et circumdabo altare tuum, Domine. Ut audiam vocem laudis. et enarrem universa mirabila tua. Domine, dilexi decorem domus tuae: et locum habitationis gloriae tuae. Ne perdas cum impiis, Deus animam meam: et cum viris sanguinum vitam meam: in quorum manibus iniquitates sunt: dextera eorum repleta est muneribus. Ego autem in innocentia mea ingressus sum: redime me, et miserere mei. Pes meus stetit in directo: in ecclesiis benedicam te, Domine.

P. I wash my hands in innocence, and I go around Your altar, O Lord, giving voice to my thanks, and recounting all Your wondrous deeds. O Lord, I love the house in which You dwell, the tenting place of Your glory. Gather not my soul with those of sinners, nor with men of blood my life. On their hands are crimes, and their right hands are full of bribes. But I walk in integrity; redeem me, and have pity on me My foot stands on level ground; in the assemblies I will bless You, O Lord.

Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto.
Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper: et in saecula saeculorum.
Amen.

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit.
As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

(facing at the middle of the altar, the priest prays

P. Suscipe sancta Trinitas, hanc oblationem, quam tibi offerimus ob memoriam passionis, resurrectionis, et ascensionis Jesu Christi Domini nostri: et in honorem beatae Mariae semper Virginis, et beati Joannis Baptistae, et sanctorum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli, et istorum, et omnium Sanctorum: ut illis proficiat ad honorem, nobis autem ad salutem: et illi pro nobis intercedere dignentur in coelis, quorum memoriam agimus in terris. Per eumdem Christum Dominum nostrum.
S. Amen.

P. Accept, most Holy Trinity, this offering which we are making to You in remembrance of the passion, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ, Our Lord; and in honor of blessed Mary, ever Virgin, Blessed John the Baptist, the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, and of (name of the Saints whose relics are in the Altar) and of all the Saints; that it may add to their honor and aid our salvation; and may they deign to intercede in heaven for us who honor their memory here on earth. Through the same Christ our Lord.
S. Amen.

(He turns to the congregation and calls on them to join their prayers with his:)

P. Orate fratres, ut meum ac vestrum sacrificium acceptabile fiat apud Deum Patrem omnipotentem.

P. Pray brethren, that my Sacrifice and yours may be acceptable to God the Father Almighty.

S. Suscipiat Dominus sacrificium de manibus tuis ad laudem et gloriam nominis sui, ad utilitatem quoque nostram, totiusque Ecclesiae suae sanctae.

S. May the Lord receive the Sacrifice from your hands to the praise and glory of His Name, for our good, and that of all His holy Church.

The Secret
(The Priest here says the day’s Secret prayer:)

(At the end of the Secret, the Priest says audibly:)

P. ..per omnia saecula saeculorum.
S. Amen.

P. ..forever and ever.
S. Amen.

The Preface

(Stand)

P. Dominus vobiscum.
S. Et cum spiritu tuo.
P. Sursum corda.
S. Habemus ad Dominum.
P. Gratias agamus Domino Deo nostro.
S. Dignum et justum est.

P. May the Lord be with you.
S. And with your spirit.
P. Lift up your hearts.
S. We have lifted them up to the Lord.
P. Let us give thanks to the Lord our God.
S. It is right and just.

(Here the Priest says the appropriate Preface. This is the Preface of the Holy Trinity)

P. Vere dignum et justum est, aequum et salutare, nos tibi semper, et ubique gratias agere: Domine sancte, Pater omnipotens, aeterne Deus. qui cum unigenito Filio tuo, et Spiritu Sancto, unus es Deus, unus es Dominus. non in unius singularitate personae, sed in unius Trinitate substantiae. Quod enim de tua gloria, revelante te, credimus, hoc de filio tuo, hoc de Spiritu Sancto, sine differentia discretionis sentimus. Ut in confessione verae sempiternaeque Deitatis, et in personis proprietas, et in essentia unitas, et in majestate adoretur aequalitas. Quam laudant Angeli atque Archangeli, Cherubim quoque ac Seraphim: qui non cessant clamare quotidie, una voce dicentes.

P. It is indeed fitting and right, our duty and our salvation, always and everywhere to give thanks to You, Lord, Holy Father, almighty and eternal God, who with Your only-begotten Son and the Holy Spirit are one God, one Lord: Not in the oneness of a single person, but three persons in one single essence. For what we believe from your revelation concerning Your glory, that also we believe of Your Son and of the Holy Spirit without difference or distinction; so that when we affirm the true and everlasting Godhead we worship three distinct persons in a oneness of Being and with equality of majesty. And that God the angels praise with the archangels, cherubim, and seraphs, ceaselessly singing with one voice:

Sanctus
(Sung as the Priest begins the canon. All the prayers are said in a low voice.)

S/C. Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus,
Dominus Deus Sabaoth.
Pleni sunt coeli et terra gloria tua.
Hosanna in excelsis.
Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini.
Hosanna in excelsis.

S/C. Holy, Holy, Holy
Lord God of Hosts.
Heaven and earth are filled with your glory.
Hosanna in the highest.
Blessed is He Who comes in the Name of the Lord.
Hosanna in the highest

The Roman Canon
(kneel)

P. Te igitur, clementissime Pater, per Jesum Christum Filium tuum, Dominum nostrum, supplices rogamus ac petimus uti accepta habeas, et benedicas haec dona, haec munera, haec sancta sacrificia illibata; in primis quae tibi offerimus pro Ecclesia tua sancta catholica; quam pacificare, custodire, adunare, et regere digneris toto orbe terrarum: una cum famulo tuo Papa nostro N.,et Antistite nostro N. et omnibus orthodoxis, atque catholicae et aostolicae fidei cultoribus.

P. Therefore, most gracious Father, we humbly beg of You and entreat You through Jesus Christ Your Son, Our Lord. Hold acceptable and bless + these gifts, these + offerings, these + holy and unspotted oblations which, in the first place, we offer You for your Holy Catholic Church. Grant her peace and protection, unity and guidance throughout the worlds, together with Your servant (name), our Pope, and (name), our Bishop; and all Orthodox believers who cherish the Catholic and Apostolic Faith.

P. Memento, Domine, famulorum, famularumque tuarum N. et N. et omnium circumstantium, quorum tibi fides cognita est, et nota devotio, pro quibus tibi offerimus. vel qui tibi offerunt hoc sacrificium laudis pro se, suisque omnibus, pro redemptione animarum suarum, pro spe salutis, et incolumitatis suae; tibique reddunt vota sua aeterno Deo, vivo et vero.

P. Remember, O Lord, Your servants and handmaids, (name) and (name), and all here present, whose faith and devotion are known to You. On whose behalf we offer to You, or who themselves offer to You this sacrifice of praise for themselves, families and friends, for the good of their souls, for their hope of salvation and deliverance from all harm, and who offer their homage to You, eternal, living and true God.

(This next prayer has special beginnings for certain feasts. This is the usual version.)

P. Communicantes, et memoriam venerantes in primis gloriosae semper Virginis Mariae, Genitricis Dei et Domini nostri Jesu Christi: sed et beati Joseph ejusdem Virginis Sponsi, et beatorum Apostolorum ac Martyrum tuorum, Petri et Pauli, Andreae, Jacobi, Joannis, Thomae, Jacobi, Philippi, Bartholomaei, Matthaei, Simonis, et Thaddaei: Lini, Cleti, Clementis, Xysti, Cornelii, Cypriani, Laurentii, Chrysogoni, Joannis et Pauli, Cosmae et Damiani, et omnium Sanctorum tuorum; quorum meritis precibusque concedas, ut in omnibus protectionis tuae muniamur auxilio. Per eundem Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen.

P. In the unity of holy fellowship we observe the memory, first of all, of the glorious and ever Virgin Mary, Mother of our Lord and God Jesus Christ. Next we observe the memory of Blessed Joseph, Spouse of the same Virgin, and of Your blessed Apostles and Martyrs, Peter and Paul, Andrew, James, John, Thomas, James, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Simon and Thaddeus; of Linus, Cletus, Clement, Sixtus, Cornelius, Cyprian, Lawrence, Chrysogonus, John and Paul, Cosmas and Damian, and all Your Saints. By their merits and prayers grant that we may be always fortified by the help of Your protection. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

P. Hanc igitur oblationem servitutis nostrae, sed et cunctae familiae tuae quaesumus, Domine, ut placatus accipias, diesque nostros in tua pace disponas, atque ab aeterna damnatione nos eripi, et in electorum tuorum jubeas grege numerari. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen.

P. Graciously accept, then, we beseech You, O Lord, this service of our worship and that of all Your household. Provide that our days be spent in Your peace, save us from everlasting damnation, and cause us to be numbered in the flock you have chosen. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

P. Quam oblationem tu, Deus, in omnibus, quaesumus, benedictam, adscriptam, ratam, rationabilem, acceptabilemque facere digneris,. ut nobis Corpus, et Sanguis fiat dilectissimi Filii tui Domini nostri Jesu Christi.

P. O God, deign to bless + what we offer, and make it approved, + effective, + right, + and wholly pleasing in every way, that it may become for our good, the Body + and Blood + of Your dearly beloved Son, our Lord Jesus Christ.

The Consecration

P. Qui pridie quam pateretur, accepit panem in sanctas ac venerabiles manus suas, et elevatis oculis in coelum ad te Deum Patrem suum omnipotentem tibi gratias agens, benedixit, fregit, deditque discipulis suis, dicens: Accipite,et manducate ex hoc omnes:

P. Who, the day before He suffered, took bread into His holy and venerable hands, and having raised His eyes to heaven to you, God, His Almighty Father, giving thanks to You, He blessed, + it broke it, and gave it to His disciples, saying: “Take and eat of this, all of you,

HOC EST ENIM CORPUS MEUM.

FOR THIS IS MY BODY.”

(The Body of Christ is lifted up for worship).

P. Simili modo postquam coenatum est, accipiens et hunc praeclarum Calicem in sanctas ac venerabiles manus suas item tibi gratias agens, benedixit, deditque discipulis suis, dicens. Accipite, et bibite ex eo omnes:

P. Similarly, when the supper was ended, taking also this goodly chalice into His holy and venerable hands, again giving thanks to You, He blessed it, and gave it to His disciples, saying: “Take and drink of this, all of you,

HIC EST ENIM CALIX SANGUINIS MEI, NOVI ET AETERNI TESTAMENTI:
MYSTERIUM FIDEI:
QUI PRO VOBIS ET PRO MULTIS EFFUNDETUR IN REMISSIONEM PECCATORUM.

THIS IS THE CHALICE OF MY BLOOD OF THE NEW AND ETERNAL COVENANT:
THE MYSTERY OF FAITH:
WHICH IS BEING SHED FOR YOU AND FOR MANY FOR THE FORGIVENESS OF SINS

Haec quotiescumque feceritis, in mei memoriam facietis.

As often as you shall do these actions, do this in memory of Me.”

(The Blood of Christ is lifted up for worship).

P. Unde et momores, Domine, nos servi tui, sed et plebs tua sancta, ejusdem Christi Filii tui Domini nostri tam beatae Passionis, nec non et ab inferis Resurrectionis, sed et in coelos gloriosae Ascensionis. offerimus praeclarae majestati tuae de tuis donis ac datis hostiam puram, hostiam sanctam, hostiam immaculatam, Panem sanctum vitae aeternae, et calicem salutis perpetuae.

P. Mindful, therefore, Lord, we, Your ministers, as also Your holy people, of the same Christ, Your Son, our Lord, remember His blessed passion, and also of His Resurrection from the dead, and finally of His glorious Ascension into heaven, offer to Your supreme Majesty, of the gifts bestowed upon us, the pure + Victim, the holy + Victim, the all-perfect + Victim: the holy + Bread of life eternal and the Chalice + of perpetual salvation.

P. Supra quae propitio ac sereno vultu respicere digneris; et accepta habere, sicuti accepta habere dignatus es munera pueri tui justi Abel, et sacrificium patriarchae nostri Abrahae, et quod tibi obtulit summus sacerdos tuus Melchisedech, sanctum sacrificium, immaculatam hostiam.

P. Deign to regard with gracious and kindly attention and hold acceptable, as You deigned to accept the offerings of Abel, Your just servant, and the sacrifice of Abraham our Patriarch, and that which Your chief priest Melchisedech offered to You, a holy Sacrifice and a spotless victim.

P. Supplices te rogamus, omnipotens Deus, jube haec perferri per manus sancti Angeli tui in sublime altare tuum, in conspectu dininae majertatis tuae: ut quoquot ex hac altaris participatione, sacrosanctum Filii tui Corpus, et Sanguinem sumpserimus, omni benedictione coelesti et gratia repleamur. Per eumdem Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen.

P. Most humbly we implore You, Almighty God, bid these offerings to be brought by the hands of Your Holy Angel to Your altar above, before the face of Your Divine Majesty. And may those of us who by sharing in the Sacrifice of this altar shall receive the Most Sacred + Body and + Blood of Your Son, be filled with every grace and heavenly blessing, Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

P. Memento etiam, Domine, famulorum famularumque tuarum N. et N. qui nos praecesserunt cum signo fidei, et dormiunt in somno pacis. Ipsis, Domine, et omnibus in Christo quiescentibus, locum refrigerii, lucis et pacis, ut indulgeas, deprecamur. Per eumdem Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen.

P. Remember also, Lord, Your servants and handmaids (name) and (name) who have gone before us with the sign of faith and rest in the sleep of peace. To these, Lord, and to all who rest in Christ, we beg You to grant of Your goodness a place of comfort, light, and peace. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

P. Nobis quoque peccatoribus famulis tuis, de multitudine miserationum tuarum sperantibus, partem aliquam, et societatem donare digneris, cum tuis sanctis Apostolis et Martyribus, cum Joanne, Stephano, Matthia, Barnaba, Ignatio, Alexandro, Marcellino, Petro, Felicitate, Perpetua, Agatha, Lucia, Agnete, Caecilia, Anastasia, et omnibus Sanctis tuis, intra quorum nos consortium, non aestimator meriti sed veniae, quaesumus, largitor admitte. Per Christum Dominum nostrum.

P. To us sinners also, Your servants, trusting in the greatness of Your mercy, deign to grant some part and fellowship with Your Holy Apostles and Martyrs with John Stephen, Matthias, Barnabas, Ignatius, Alexander, Marcellinus, Peter, Felicity, Perpetua, Agatha, Lucy, Agnes, Cecilia, Anastasia, and all Your Saints. Into their company we implore You to admit us, not weighing our merits, but freely granting us pardon. Through Christ our Lord.

P. Per quem haec omnia Domine, semper bona creas, sanctificas, vivificas, benedicis, et praestas nobis.

P. Through Whom, Lord, You always create, sanctify, + fill with life, + bless + and bestow upon us all good things.

The minor Elevation

P. Per ipsum,
et cum ipso,
et in ipso,
est tibi Deo Patri omnipotenti,
in unitate Spiritus Sancti,
omnis honor et gloria,
per omnia saecula saeculorum.

P. Through Him, +
and with
+ Him,
and in
+ Him,
is to You, God the Father
+ Almighty,
in the unity of the
+ Holy Spirit,
all honor and glory, forever and ever.

S. AMEN!

S. AMEN!.

The Communion Rite

P. Oremus.
Praeceptis salutaribus moniti, et divina institutione formati, audemus dicere:

P. Let us pray:
Taught by our Savior’s command and formed by the word of God, we dare to say:

S. Pater noster, qui es in coelis. sanctificetur nomen tuum: adveniat regnum tuum: fiat voluntas tua, sicut in coelo, et in terra. Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie, et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris. Et ne nos inducas in tentationem:

S. Our Father, Who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy Name; Thy Kingdom come; Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven, Give us this day our daily bread; and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation.

S.Sed libera nos a malo.
P. Amen.

S. But deliver us from evil.
P. Amen.

Commixtio, Breaking of the Consecrated Host

P. Libera nos, quaesumus, Domine, ab omnibus malis, praeteritis, praesentibus, et futuris, et intercedente beata et gloriosa semper Virgine Dei Genitrice Maria, cum beatis Apostolis tuis Petro et Paulo, atque Andrea, et omnibus Sanctis, da propitius pacem in diebus nostris, ut ope misericordiae tuae adjuti, et a peccato simus semper liberi, et ab omni perturbatione securi. Per eumdem Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum Filium tuum. Qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus Sancti Deus. Per omnia saecula saeculorum.
S. Amen.

P. Deliver us, we beg You, Lord, from every evil, past, present, and to come; and by the intercession of the blessed and glorious ever-Virgin, Mother of God, Mary, and of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, of Andrew, and all Saints. Grant of Your goodness, peace in our days, that aided by the riches of Your mercy, we may be always free from sin and safe from all disturbance. Through the same Jesus Christ, Your Son, our Lord, Who lives and reigns with Thee, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, God, world without end.
S. Amen.

The Peace

P. Pax Domini sit semper vobiscum.
S. Et cum spiritu tuo.

P. May the peace + of the Lord be + always with + you.
S. And with your spirit.

(said inaudibly while a small piece of the Host is placed in the Chalice)

P. Haec commixtio et consecratio Corporis et Sanguinis Domini nostri Jesu Christi, fiat accipientibus nobis in vitam aeternam. Amen.

P. May this mingling and consecration of the Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ help us who receive it to eternal life. Amen.

Agnus Dei
(sung during the Priest’s preparation for communion)

C Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis.
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis.
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona nobis pacem.

C. Lamb of God, Who take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us.
Lamb of God, Who take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us.
Lamb of God, Who take away the sins of the world, grant us peace.

P. Domine Jesu Christe, qui dixisti Apostolis tuis. Pacem relinquo vobis, pacem meam do vobis. ne respicias peccata mea, sed fidem Ecclesiae tuae: eamque secundum voluntatem tuam pacificare et coadunare digneris. qui vivis et regnas Deus, per omnia saecula saeculorum. Amen.

P. O Lord Jesus Christ, Who has said to Your Apostles. Peace I leave you, My peace I give you, regard not my sins but the faith of Your Church, and be pleased to give her peace and unity according to Your will. Who lives and reigns God, world without end. Amen.

P. Domine Jesu Christe, Fili Dei vivi, qui ex voluntate Patris, cooperante Spiritu Sancto, per mortem tuam mundum vivificasti: libera me per hoc sacrosanctum Corpus et Sanguinem tuum ab omnibus iniquitatibus meis, et universis malis, et fac me tuis semper inhaerere mandatis, et a te numquam separari permittas. Qui cum eodem Deo Patre et Spiritu Sancto vivis et regnas Deus in saecula saeculorum. Amen.

P. Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the living God, Who, by the will of the Father, with the cooperation of the Holy Spirit, have by Your death given life to the world, deliver me by this Your most sacred Body and Blood from all my sins and from every evil. Make me always cling to Your commandments, and never permit me to be separated from You Who with the same God the Father and the Holy Spirit, live and reign, God, forever and ever. Amen.

P. Perceptio Corporis tui, Domine Jesu Christe, quod ego indinus sumere praesumo, non mihi proveniat in judicium et condemnationem; sed pro tua pietate prosit mihi ad tutamentum mentis et corporis, et ad medelam percipiendam. Qui vivis et regnas cum Deo Patre in unitate Spiritus Sancti Deus, per omnia saecula saeculorum. Amen.

P. Let not the partaking of Your Body, Lord Jesus Christ, which I, though unworthy, presume to receive, turn to my judgment and condemnation; but through Your goodness, may it become a safeguard and an effective remedy, with God the Father in the unity of the Holy Spirit, God, forever and ever. Amen.

Communion of the Priest

P. Panem coelestem accipiam, et nomen Domini invocabo.

P. I will take the Bread of heaven, and call upon the Name of the Lord.

P. Domine, non sum dignus, ut intres sub tectum meum: sed tantum dic verbo, et sanabitur anima mea. (3 times)

P. Lord, I am not worthy that You should come under my roof. But say the word and my soul will be healed.

(said three times)

P. Corpus Domini nostri Jesu Christi custodiat animam meam in vitam aeternam. Amen.

P. May the Body of our Lord Jesus Christ preserve my soul to life everlasting. Amen.

(He reverently consumes the Host)

P. Quid retribuam Domino pro omnibus quae retribuit mihi? Calicem salutaris accipiam, et nomen Domini invoacbo. Laudans invocabo Dominum, et ab inimicis meis salvus ero.

P. What return shall I make to the Lord for all He has given me? I will take the chalice of salvation, and I will call upon the Name of the Lord. Praising will I call upon the Lord and I shall be saved from my enemies.

P. Sanguis Domini nostri Jesu Christi custodiat animam meam in vitam aeternam. Amen.

P. May the Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ preserve my soul to life everlasting. Amen.

(He reverently drinks the Precious Blood)

Communion of the Faithful

P Ecce Agnus Dei, ecce qui tollit peccata mundi:

P. Behold the Lamb of God, behold Him who takes away the sins of the world.

All. Domine, nom sum dignus ut intres sub tectum meum; sed tantum dic verbo, et sanabitur anima mea.

All. Lord, I am not worthy that You should come under my roof. But say the word and my soul will be healed.

(Said three times)

(communion is distributed at this point to those who wish to receive.)

(The priest goes and administers Holy Communion to the faithful, saying to each as a Host is placed on his or her tongue)

P. Corpus Domini nostri Jesu Christi custodiat animam tuam in vitam aeternam.
R. Amen.

P. May the Body of our Lord Jesus Christ preserve your soul unto everlasting life.
R. Amen.

The Ablutions

(The celebrant now cleanses the chalice)

P. Quod ore sumpsimus, Domine, pura mente capiamus.. et de munere temporali fiat nobis remedium sempiternum.

P. What has passed our lips as food, Lord, may we posses in purity of heart, that what is given to us in time, be our healing for eternity.

(and his fingers)

P..Corpus tuum, Domine, quod sumpsi, et Sanguis quem potavi, adhaereat visceribus meis.. et praesta, ut in me non remaneat scelerum macula, quem pura et sancta refererunt sacramenta. Qui vivis et regnas in saecula saeculorum. Amen.

P. May Your Body, Lord, which I have eaten, and Your Blood which I have drunk, cleave to my very soul, and grant that no trace of sin be found in me, whom these pure and holy mysteries have renewed. You, Who live and reign, world without end. Amen.

Communion Antiphon
(can be sung at this point or at any time after the “Ecce Agnus Dei…”)

Postcommunion
(stand)

P. Dominus vobiscum.
S. Et cum spiritu tuo.

P. May the Lord be with you.
S. And with you spirit.

P. Oremus..

P. Let us pray.

(Here he says the post-communion prayer)

S. Amen.

S. Amen.

Final Prayer and Dismissal

P. Dominus vobiscum.
S. Et cum spiritu tuo.
P. Ite, Missa est.
S. Deo gratias.

P. May the Lord be with you.
S. And with your spirit
P/D. Go, you are sent forth.
S. Thanks be to God.

(or in Masses for the dead)

P.Requiescant in pace S. Amen

(or in Masses for the dead)

P. May they rest in peace. S. Amen.

(The celebrant prays in a low voice)

P. Placeat tibi, sancta Trinitas, obsequium servitutis meae: et praesta, ut sacrificium quod oculis tuae majestatis indignus obtuli, tibi sit acceptabile, mihique, et omnibus pro quibus illud obtuli, sit te miserante propitiabile. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen.

P. May the tribute of my worship be pleasing to You, most Holy Trinity, and grant that the sacrifice which I, all unworthy, have offered in the presence of Your Majesty, may be acceptable to You, and through Your mercy obtain forgiveness for me and all for whom I have offered it. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

P. Benedicat vos omnipotens Deus Pater, et Filius, et Spiritus Sanctus.
S. Amen.

P. May Almighty God bless you, the Father, and the Son, + and the Holy Spirit.
S. Amen.

The Last Gospel

P. Dominus vobiscum.
S. Et cum spiritu tuo.

P. The Lord be with you.
S. And with your spirit.

P. Initium sancti Evangelii secundum Joannem.
S. Gloria tibi, Domine.

P. + The beginning of the holy Gospel according to St. John.
S. Glory be to You, O Lord.

P. In principio erat Verbum et Verbum erat apud Deum, et Deus erat Verbum. Hoc erat in principio apud Deum. Omnia per ipsum facta sunt, et sine ipso factum est nihil quod factum est; in ipso vita erat, et vita erat lux hominum; et lux in tenebris lucet, et tenebrae eam non comprehenderunt.

P. (The Priest reads John 1.1-14)
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made. In him was life; and the life was the light of men. And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not.

Fuit homo missus a Deo cui nomen erat Joannes. Hic venit in testimonium, ut testimonium perhiberet de lumine, ut omnes crederent per illum. Non erat ille lux, sed ut testimonium perhiberet de lumine. Erat lux vera quae illuminat omnem hominem venientem in hunc mundum. In mundo erat, et mundus per ipsum factus est et mundus eum non cognovit. In propria venit, et sui eum non receperunt. Quotquot autem receperunt eum, dedit eis potestatem filios Dei fieri; his qui credunt in nomine ejus, qui non ex sanguinibus, neque ex voluntate viri, sed ex deo nati sunt. ET VERBUM CARO FACTUM EST et habitabit in nobis; et vidimus gloriam ejus gloriam quasi Unigenti a Patre, plenum gratiae et veritatis.

There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. The same came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all men through him might believe. He was not that Light, but was sent to bear witness of that Light. That was the true Light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world. He was in the world, and the world was made by him, and the world knew him not. He came unto his own, and his own received him not. But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name: Which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. AND THE WORD WAS MADE FLESH, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth

S. Deo gratias.

S. Thanks be to God.




Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational
purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source.
No permission is granted for commercial use.

(c)Paul Halsall August 1996
halsall@murray.fordham.edu

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